Written by Dr.Albana Greca Sejdini, Md, MMedSc
The steps of prostate cancer advancement are known as stages of prostate cancer. They are a kind of clinical markers to identify the extent of progression.
Basically, there are four stages and sub groups of the particular stage are made for more minute examinations.
Let us divulge little more in different stages. They re chronologically named as T1, T2, T3 and MI. The sub staging is done by denoting ‘a’ ‘b’ and ‘c’ likewise.
I - In T1a: there is no palpation of tumor but digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen is the marker. Here the ideal therapy is mainly wait and watch with some dietary modifications with antioxidant, are mainly recommended.
II - Second is T1b: palpation of granule like structure is isolated in confined area approximately 5%. Here treatment modality has two options:
1 - either to watch or
2 - recommend for radiation
Anyway, as physicians are divided in their opinions accordingly, your doctor will decide which is the best option for you.
III - Third is T1c: here the tumor is not palpable but the elevated PSA level is the main detector. The treatment modality is same as above.
IV - The fourth of stages of prostate cancer comes as T2a and here half of the prostate lobe (or little less) is involved and palpable by DRE.
The treatment modality here is preferred by some authority is to provide anti androgen such as Cyproterone acetate or Flutamide.
V - The fifth is T2 b: here half portion or one lobe or little more area is affected. The treatment regimen follows T2a guideline mainly.
VI - Sixth comes as T2 c; and here the granular feeling is more palpable and it involves both the lobes of the prostate. The preferred choice is radiation although; some may prefer the earlier options of treatment.
VII - Then the next is T3a: the projection of the rough surfaced tumor is bulged out from its position in one lobe mainly. The preferred choice is radiation therapy.
VIII - T3b is the eighth one: It is same as T3a but involves both lobes of prostate again the line of treatment is radiation therapy.
IX - T3c is the ninth among the stages of prostate cancer: here the bulging of tumor is crossing out its normal position and starts affecting the surrounding genital region. Since thing has progressed to a large extent the option is radiation and cytotoxic drugs.
X - The final or the ninth stage (including sub stages) is MI: here metastasis takes place and it becomes completely unpredictable which will be the affected area.
Radiation therapy and some cytotoxic drugs are the general options. The surgical intervention is absolutely contraindicated as that may uncontrollably provoke the metastases to contiguous or non contiguous regions.
Now the most striking question is coming out in your mind:
One thing is to be made very clear that cancer means the presence of some abnormal cells, called neoplasm. These types of cells do not follow normal physiology of the body.
To get an appropriate prostate cancer cure means to get rid of these cells and to get rid simply means is to kill the cells either by drugs or remove by burning it up through radiation.
If the number of the cells is small in localized area you can have a better control and if by some misfortune reverse is the picture, the prognosis is poor.